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11 public goods.ppt
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11 public_goods11
Public Goods mon Resource
公共物品和公共资源
In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions:
What are public goods? What mon resources?
Why do markets generally fail to provide the efficient amounts of these goods?
THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF GOODS
When thinking about the various goods in the economy, it is useful to group them according to two characteristics:
在考虑经济中的各种物品时,根据两个特点来对其进行分类是有用的:
Is the good excludable?
该物品有排他性吗?
Is the good rival?
该物品有竞争性吗?
THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF GOODS
Excludability 排他性
Excludability refers to the property of a good whereby a person can be prevented from using it.
一种物品具有的可以阻止一个人使用该物品的特性。
Rivalry 竞争性
Rivalry refers to the property of a good whereby one person’s use diminishes other people’s use.
一个人使用一种物品将减少其他人对该物品使用的特性。
THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF GOODS
Private Goods 私人物品
Are both excludable and rival.
既有排他性又有竞争性
Public Goods 公共物品
Are neither excludable nor rival.
mon Resources 公共资源
Are rival but not excludable.
有竞争性但没有排他性。
Natural Monopolies 自然垄断
Are excludable but not rival.
有排他性但没有竞争性
Figure 1 Four Types of Goods
Rival?
Yes
Yes

Ice-cream cones冰淇淋蛋卷

Clothing 衣服

Congested toll roads
拥挤的收费的道路

Fire protection 消防

Cable TV 有线电视

Uncongested toll roads
不拥挤的收费道路
No
Private Goods
Natural Monopolies
No
Excludable?

Fish in the ocean 海洋中的鱼

The environment环境

Congested nontoll roads
拥挤的不收费的道路

Tornado siren 龙卷风警报器

National defense 国防

Uncongested nontoll roads
不拥挤的不收费的道路
Common Resources
Public Goods
PUBLIC GOODS
A free-rider is a person who receives the benefit of a good but avoids paying for it.
搭便车者:得到一种物品的利益但避开为此付费的人。
The Free-Rider Problem
The free-rider problem prevents private markets from supplying public goods.
搭便车者问题阻碍了私人市场提供公共物品。
The Free-Rider Problem
Solving the Free-Rider Problem
The government can decide to provide the public good if the total benefits exceed the costs.
如果总收益超过成本,政府可以决定提供公共物品。
The Difficult Job of Cost-Benefit Analysis
Cost b 内容来自淘豆网bitlisinsesi.com转载请标明出处.